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The City of Magadan
Written by Administrator   
Monday, 25 October 2010 10:54

Magadan. Author P. Yu. ZhdanovMagadan is the administrative center of Magadan Oblast, one of the farthest (7110 km) from the capital of Russia and the youngest (since 1954) regional center in the Far East of Russia. Magadan received its city status on July 14, 1939, though it has existed as a community since 1929. According to the Toponymic Dictionary of the North-East of the USSR by V.V. Leontyev and K.A. Novikova (1989), the Even word ‘mongodan’ means the dwelling made from drift wood. The city is located on the shore of the Tauysk Bay, in the northern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, on the neck connecting the Staritsky Peninsula with the mainland, between the Nagayev and Gertner bays. Magadan is a small community with about 120 thousand residents. It houses 65 percent of all enterprises and organizations in Magadan Oblast. The decree of the Russian Government established the special economic zone in Magadan.
The history of Magadan is based on lives and deeds of those victims of Stalinist repressions, who went a long way from the port of Nagayevo to the most remote mines and settlements within the special Dal’stroy zone, as well as of those who came here to work, to explore this severe land, to reveal its riches at the call of the country and of their own souls.
The city is the center of one of the resource-richest areas in Russia. The depths of Magadan Oblast contain significant amounts of gold, silver, tungsten, copper, tin, molybdenum, and polymetallic ores. There are resources of coal, oil, ТОРФ, timber, gaseous concentrate. Gold and silver mining and production are the basic industry in Magadan Oblast. The main perspectives of the area development are associated with mining, involving new deposits of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, rare and rare-earth metals, brown coals, as well as with surveying and exploring the Magadan oil- and gas-forming shelf. Such enterprises as Susumanzoloto, Polymetal, Matrosova Mine joint-stock companies and many others work in mining. The stable growth of mineral resources is to a great extend provided by the activities of the largest geological enterprise in the area, Magadangeologia joint-stock company, as well as of the Dukatgeologia and some others.
Magadan. Author P. Yu. ZhdanovFishery is the second most important industry in Magadan Oblast. Its products are sold not only in Russia’s home market but also exported, occupying a significant part of the global seafood market. Magadan enterprises fish for salmon (hunchback, chum, king, and blueback), halibat, Alaska pollack, and other fish species, so abundant in the waters of the Sea of Okhotsk. Clusters of shrimps, urchins, thorn crab, and seaweed play an important role in the coastal marine bioresources of Magadan Oblast. Fishing is a favorite pastime of Magadaners in any season. In the winter, they ice-fish for smelt and navaga; in the summertime, they fish for capelin and sole; late summer and fall is the salmon fishing time.
Another important industry is power engineering. The area possesses significant power-generating facilities, the major one, the Kolyma Power Plant (900 megaWatt, along with the Ust’-Srednekan Power Plant (500 megaWatt), being built at the present, will cover all mining needs.
Magadan. Author P. Yu. ZhdanovIn the city of Magadan, there is a powerful science and education complex, closely connected with the basic industries and the history of the area development. It includes such institutions of the Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) as the Northeastern Interdisciplinary Scientific Research Institute, Institute of the Biological Problems of the North, the Arctica Research Center, as well as the Magadan Research Institute of Fishery and Oceanography, the Magadan Zone Research Institute of the North-East Agriculture, the Northeastern Permafrost Research Station of the P.I. Melnikov Institute of Permafrost Studies of the RAS Siberian Branch, the Magadan Branch of the RAS Geophysical Service, VNII-1 Joint-Stock Company. They employ about 40 Doctors and over 90 Candidates of Sciences. Most leading scholars teach at the North East State University and at branches of some Russian universities. The University offers majors in geology, mining, building construction, automobile engineering, economics, law, biology, history, sociology, and others – about 30 totally, all vital for Magadan Oblast development.
Magadan. Author P. Yu. ZhdanovIn the city of Magadan, there are several museums, theaters, a circus studio, and other cultural institutions. The Magadan Oblast Local Museum embraces six permanent expositions while the exhibition hall annually displays 6 to 8 temporary shows. The Museum demonstrates its natural history collection and items of material and spiritual cultures of the ingenuous peoples of the North-East, the unique materials on the history of the Stalinist repressions in the area. The V. Kozin Salon Museum, arranged in 1995, presents the materials on the life and heritage of this really people’s singer.  The Museum is located in the memorial apartment where he lived. In the city, there is also the Natural History Museum of the Northeastern Interdisciplinary Scientific Research Institute of the RAS Far East Branch, displaying the regional geomineralogical and ethnoarchaeological collections. The pearl of the Museum is the largest meteorite collection in the Russian Far East. The exposition of the Yu.A. Bilibin Geological Museum at the Magadan Oblast Branch of the Federal Foundation of Information on the Far East Federal District displays its paleonthological collections and minerals of this land. In the Golden Room of this Museum, the unique samples of gold ores and nugget gold from placers in Kolyma and Chukotka.
Magadan is an important transportation knot providing transport connections with the countries of Asia Pacific, former Soviet Union, and regions of Russia. The sea port is the gate to Magadan Oblast, through which over 90 percent of all cargoes comes. At the present, there is no regular maritime passenger transportation , but a sea excursion can be arranged for those who would like to see spectacular coastal steeps and nearby islands. 50 kilometers from the downtown area, there is an international airport, through which Magadan Oblast is connected with other parts of the Russian Federation and China. Both cargo and passenger transportation is performed by such carriers as Aeroflot, Transaero Airlines, Vladivostok Air, S7 Airlines, Yakutia Airlines, SAT Airlines. The airport receives almost all types of passenger liners and heavy cargo planes.
The climate in Magadan Oblast is severe. Winds are always cold: in the summer, they blow from the sea to the mainland; in the winter, from the interior to the sea. In most areas, positive average monthly temperatures are marked in May through September. In the continental areas, there is a warm, even hot, weather. In early September, in Magadan the temperature is +9° - + 11° C (about 50° F in the daytime and from 0° to +1° C (about 32° F) at night; it may be freezing, foggy, and raining. In the continental part of Magadan Oblast it may freeze sharply, and snowfalls are possible in September.

Last Updated ( Monday, 25 October 2010 11:32 )